Kenyon College -- Department of Biology

The critical paper analysis
Biology 243: Comparative Animal Physiology
Fall 2005

return to biology 243 syllabus Return to project assignment Literature search guide 

Proper citation for Biol 243 assignments.

Within the body of your text, you should provide a citation at each point where you use specific information from a source.  Format of the citation should be (author, year).  For multiple author papers, use (first author, et al., year).

Example:  Heart rate during maximal exercise can reach up to 220 beats/min (Williams, et al., 1997).
If an entire paragraph uses a particular source, you should provide a citation at the beginning or end of the paragraph.

The custom in the sciences is to write all material in your own words.  Direct quotations from other sources are generally not appropriate.

In the reference list, primary literature citations should include:
All authors
Complete title of article
Journal name
Volume number
Page numbers
Hunt, M.K., C.S. Crean, R.J. Wood, A.S. Gilburn. 1998. Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 64:385-396.

Pierre-Pascal Duquette, Pierre Bissonnette, and Jean-Yves Lapointe. Local osmotic gradients drive the water flux associated with Na+/glucose cotransport. PNAS 98: 3796-3801, 2001.

Book citations should include:
Title of book
Pages used
Borgia, G. 1979. Sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems. In: Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects. Academic Press, New York. pp. 138-169.

Web sites should be cited in the following manner:
Gillen, Chris. March 18, 2001. "Biol 105:  Biology of Exercise Syllabus." Available:  [Date visited: 3/19/01]

Proper citation is very important.  If you are unsure, please ask me.

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