activator protein 1 (AP-1) – multiprotein complex composed of products of c jun/c fos protooncogenes which dimerize and bind to AP-1 recognition site, controls basal and inducible transcription of several genes (National Institute of Cancer 2003)


amphipathic – a bio molecule that contains both polar (water friendly) and non-polar (water repelling) domains (Biotech Life Science Dictionary 1998).


cytokines – a term used in immunology referring to any other molecule released by cells to control reactions between other cells (Biotech Life Science Dictionary 1998).


cytotoxic – toxic or poisonous effect on cells (Biotech Life Science Dictionary 1998).


death-domain - a heterodimerization domain present in several proteins involved in apoptotic signal transduction and the NFkB pathway (The Death Domain).


endotoxic shock (septic shock) – caused by overwhelming infection leads to low blood pressure and low blood flow.  Could cause brain, heart, liver, and kidney failure if untreated (Kaufman 2002).


IkB kinases – inhibitory kinase transcription factor that regulates NF-kB activity, which can bind enhancer elements when activated by pathogenic stimuli (National Institute of Cancer 2003).


JNK – a c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase in subfamily of mitogen activated kinases (mediate intracellular phosphorylation that links receptor activation to control of cell proliferation and differentiation), that is part of a cascade response to various cell stresses (National Cancer Institute 2003).


NF-kB – nuclear transcription factor heterodimer of two DNA-binding subunits involved in cytokine induced activation of gene expression.  In B-lymphocytes it binds immunoglobulin kappa light chain enhancer and in T-lymphocytes it binds enhancers in virally infected cells, including HIV (National Cancer Institute 2003).


RIP – a 74 kDa serine/threonine protein kinase that can interact with TNF-R1 through adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAFs 1, 2, 3 to induce cell death (National Cancer Institute 2003)


TRADD – adaptor protein involved in recruitment of FADD or TRAF signaling proteins into TNF-stimulated cell death.  Also involved in NF-kB induction.  Contains death domain (National Cancer Institute 2003)


TRADD/FADD/Caspase-8 pathway – cascade pathway of apoptotic responsible cell death signaled by TNF receptors (National Cancer Institute 2003).



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Indiana Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology.  Biotech Life Science Dictionary. 

(updated 5/12/03). Available: (Visited:  12/14/03).


Kaufman, David A. M.D., Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. (1/25/2002) Available: (Visited:  12/14/03)


National Cancer Institute, Metathesaurus Browser. (February 2003) Available: (Visited: 12/14/03)


The Death Domain.  Available: (Visited: 12/14/03)