áááááThanks first and foremost to Dr. Siobhan Fennessy of Kenyon College for her help with virtually every aspect of both this site and the mycorrhiza research projects in her lab. Dr. Carl Friese of the University of Dayton provided much-needed advice on staining techniques and scoring of mycorrhizal infection. Erin Wimmers, Jessica Edwards, and Mark Wilson helped process plants -- for hours and hours. Steven Marx at the University of Rochester helped with ideas for HTML coding. Mycorrhizal Applications, Inc. and Mark Brundrett kindly gave permission to use their photographs of mycorrhizae and roots. The Mycorrhizal Information Exchange site at provided many of the other images used in this site.

Works Cited

Allen, M.F., Allen, E.B., and Friese, C.F. 1989. Responses of the non-mycotrophic plant Salsola kali to invasion by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 111:45-49.

Allen, M.F. 1991. The Ecology of Mycorrhizae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bago, B., Azcˇn-Aguilar, C., Goulet, A., and PichÚ, Y. 1998. Branched absorbing structures (BAS): a feature of the extraradical mycelium of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.. 375-388.

Berch, S.M. and Fortin, J.A. 1983. Endegone pisiformis: axenic culture and associations with Sphagnum, Pinus sylvestris, Allium cepa, and Allium porrum. Can. J. Bot. 61:899-905.

Cantelmos, A. Jr., and Ehrenfeld, J.G. 1999. Effects of microtopography on mycorrhizal infection in Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Mills). Mycorrhiza. 8:175-180.

Cooke, J. C., Butler, R.H., and Madole, G. 1993. Some observations on the vertical distribution of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae in roots of salt marsh grasses growing in saturated soils. Mycologia. 85(4):547-550.

Cooke, J.C., and Lefor, M.W. 1998. The mycorrhizal status of selected plant species from Connecticut wetlands and transition zones. Restoration Ecology. 6(2):214-222.

Friese, C.F. and Allen, M.F. 1991. The spread of VA mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in the soil: inoculum types and external hyphal architecture. Mycologia. 83(4):409-418.

Friese, C.F. and Koske, R.E. 1991. The spatial dispersion of spores of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a sand dune: microscale patterns associated with the root architecture of American beachgrass. Mycol Res95(8):952-957.

Harley, J.L. and Smith, S.E. 1983. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, Inc., London.

Hayman, D.S. 1983. The physiology of vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Can. J. Bot. 61:944-963.

Johnson, N.C., Tilman, D., and Wedin, D. 1992. Plant and soil controls on mycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology. 73(6):2034-2042.

Johnson, N.C. 1993. Can fertilization of soil select less mutualistic mycorrhizae? Ecological Applications. 3(4):749-757.

Johnson, N.C., Graham, J.H., and Smith, F.A. 1997. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytol. 135:575-585.

Jurgensen, M.F., Richter, D.L, Davis, M.M., McKevlin, M.R., and Craft, M.H. 1997. Mycorrhizal relationships in bottomland hardwood forests of the southern United States. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 4:223-233.

Keeley, J.E. 1980. Endomycorrhizae influence growth of blackgum seedlings in flooded soils. Amer. J. Bot. 67(1):6-9.

Mukerji, K.G. and Mandeep. 1998. "Mycorrhizal relationships of wetlands and rivers associated plants" In Majumdar, S.K., Miller, E.W., and Brenner, F.J. Ed. 1998. Ecology of Wetlands and Associated Systems. The Pennsylvania Academy of Science., Easton, PA.

Blom et al. In Mulamootil, G. Warner, B.G., and McBean, E.A. Eds. 1996. Wetlands: Environmental Gradients, Boundaries, and Buffers. CRC/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Norris, J.R., Read, D.J., and Varma, A.K. Ed. 1994. Techniques for Mycorrhizal Research. Academic Press, San Diego.

Patrick, W.H., and Mahapatra, I.C. 1968. Transformation and availability to rice of nitrogen and phosphorus in waterlogged soils. Adv. Agron. 20:323-359.

Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 55:159-161.

Ragupathy, S., Mohankumar, V., and Mahadevan, A. 1990. Occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in tropical hydrophytes. Aquatic Botany. 36:287-291.

Read, D.J. and Armstron, W. 1972. A relationship between oxygen transport and the formation of the ectotrophic mycorrhizal sheath in conifer seedlings. New Phytol. 71:49-53.

Reddy, K.H., Patrick, W.H. Jr., and Lindau, C.W. 1989. Nitrification-denitrification at the plant root-sediment interface in wetlands. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(6):1004-1013.

Rickerl, D.H., Sancho, F.O., and Ananth, S. 1994. Vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal colonization of wetland plants. J. Environ. Qual. 23:913-916.

Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. 1997. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, Second Edition. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.

S°ndergaard, M., and Laegaard, S. 1977. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in some aquatic vascular plants. Nature. 268(21):232-233.

Sylvia, D., Fuhrmann, J., Hartel, P., and Zuberer, D. 1998. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Prentice Hall.

Varma, A., Ed. 1998. Mycorrhiza Manual. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Varma, A., and Hock, B. Ed. 1998. Mycorrhiza. Springer, Berlin.

Wetzel, P.R. and van der Valk, A.G. 1996. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in prairie pothole wetland vegetation in Iowa and North Dakota. Can. J. Bot. 74:883-890.

Back to contents.