1917: Karel Capek coins the term `robot' (in Czech `robot'
means `worker', but the English translation retained
the original word).
1928: John von Neumann's minimax theorem (later used in game
1943: McCulloch and Pitt propose neural-network
architectures for intelligence.
1950: Isaac Asimov, "I, Robot"
1950: Shannon proposes chess program
1950: Turing Test proposed (Turing's "Computing Machinery
1954: Isaac Asimov, "The Caves of Steel" (Robot Science
1955: Newell, Shaw, and Simon develop "IPL-11", first AI
1956: Newell, Shaw, and Simon create "The Logic Theorist", a
program that solves math problems.
1956: AI named at Dartmouth computer conference, first
meeting of McCarthy, Minsky, Newell, and Simon.
1956: CIA funds GAT machine-translation project.
1956: Ulam develops "MANIAC I", the first chess program to
beat a human being.
1957: Chomsky writes "Syntactic Structures"
1957: Newell, Shaw, & Simon create General Problem Solver
(GPS) means-ends analysis
1958: McCarthy introduces "LISP" at MIT
1959: Minsky and McCarthy establish MIT AI lab
1959: Rosenblatt introduces Perceptron.
1959: Samuel's checkers program wins games against best
1960: Bar-Hillel publishes a paper describing difficulty of
1962: McCarthy moves to Stanford, founding Stanford AI Lab
1962: First commercial industrial robots.
1963: ARPA gives $2 million grant to MIT AI Lab.
1963: Sutherland's SKETCHPAD: drawing tool (CAD),
constraint solver, WYSIWYG
1963: M. Ross Quillian (semantic networks as a knowledge
1963: Susumo Kuno's parser tested on "Time flies like an
1963: Minsky's "Steps towards Artificial Intelligence"
1964: Bobrow's STUDENT (solves high-school algebra word
1964: Development of BBNLisp begins at BBN
1965: Buchanan, Feigenbaum & Lederberg begin DENDRAL expert
1965: Iva Sutherland demonstrates first head-mounted display
1965: Simon predicts, "by 1985 machines will be capable of
doing any work a man can do"
1965: Dreyfus argues against the possibility of AI.
1966: Donald Michie founds Edinburgh AI lab.
1966: Weizanbaum's ELIZA
1967: Greenblatt's MacHack defeats Hubert Deyfus at chess.
1967: "HAL" stars in Clarke and Kubrick's "2001"
1968: Minsky's "Semantic Information Processing"
1968: Chomsky and Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English"
1969: Minsky & Papert's "Perceptions" (limits of single-
layer neural networks)
1969: Hearn & Griss define Standard Lisp to port the REDUCE
symbolic algebra system.
1970: PROLOG (Colmerauer)
1970: Pople and Myers begin INTERNIST (aid in diagnosis of
1970: Terry Winograd's SHRDLU (Natural Language Processing,
1970: Winston's ARCH
1971: Colby's PARRY
1972: Dreyfus publishes "What Computer's Can't Do"
1972: Smalltalk developed at Xerox PARC (Kay)
1973: Lighthill report kills AI funding in UK.
1973: Schank and Alberson develop scripts.
1974: Edward Shortliffe's thesis on MYCIN.
1974: First computer-controlled robot.
1974: Minsky's "A Framework for Representing Knowledge".
1974: SUMEX-AIM network established (applications of AI to
1975: Cooper & Erlbaum found Nestor to develop neural net
1975: DARPA launches image understanding funding program.
1975: Larry Harris founds Artificial Intelligence Corp.
1976: Adventure (Crowther and Woods) - first adventure game.
1976: Greenblatt creates first LISP machine, "CONS"
1976: Kurzweil introduces reading machine.
1976: Lenat's AM (Automated Mathematician)
1976: Marr's primal sketch as a visual presentation.
1977: C3PO and R2D2 star in "Star Wars".
1978: Marr and Nishihara propose 2-1/2 dimensional sketch
1978: Xerox LISP machines
1979: Raj Reddy founds Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon
1979: MYCIN as good as medical experts (Journal of American
1979: Publication of Weinreb and Moon's MIT AI Lab memo on
Flavors, an OOP offering advanced capabilities still
not generally unavailable outside the LISP language
1980: Expert systems up to a thousand rules.
1980: First AAAI conference at Stanford.
1980: Greenblatt & Jacobson found LMI; Noftsker starts
1980: Hofstader writes "G\"odel, Escher, Bach", wins
1980: McDermott's XCON for configuring VAX systems (DEC and
1980: First biannual ACM LISP and Functional Programming
1981: Kazuhiro Fuchi announces Japanese Fifth Generation
1981: MITI wants intelligent computers by 1990.
1981: Teknowledge founded by Feigenbaum.
1981: PSL (Portable Standard Lisp) runs on a variety of
1981: Lisp machines from Xerox, LMI, and Symbolics available
commercially, making dynamic OOP technology available
on a widespread basis.
1981: Grass roots definition of Common Lisp as the common
aspects of the family of languages- Lisp Machine Lisp,
MacLisp, NIL, S-1 Lisp, Spice Lisp, Scheme.
1982: Publication of British government's "Alvey Report" on
advanced information technology, leading to boost in
Ai (Expert Systems) being used in industry.
1982: Japan's ICOT formed.
1982: John Hopfield resuscitates neural nets.
1982: SRI's PROSPECTOR finds major deposit of molybdenum.
1983: Asimov writes "Robot's of Dawn".
1983: Feigenbaum & McCorduck publish "The Fifth Generation".
1983: DARPA announced Strategic Computing Initiative.
1983: IntelliGenetics markets KEE.
1983: MCC consortium formed under Bobby Ray Inman.
1984: Publication of Steele's "Common Lisp the Language"
1984: Chamberlain's RACTER `writes' book
1984: Doug Lenat begins CYC project at MCC.
1984: European Community starts ESPRIT program.
1984: GM puts $4 million into Teknowledge.
1984: Gold Hill creates Golden Common LISP.
1984: TI wins MIT contract for Lisp machines away from
1984: "Wabot-2" reads sheet music and plays organ.
1985: GM and Campbell's Soup don't use Lisp for expert
1985: Kawasaki robot kills Japanese mechanic during
1985: MIT Media Lab founded.
1985: Minsky publishes "The Society of Mind"
1985: Palladian sells Financial Adviser.
1985: Teknowledge abandons LISP and PROLOG for C.
1985: Xerox wins $20 million contract for LISP machines,
1986: X3J13 forms to produce a draft for an ANSI Common Lisp
1986: AI industry revenue now $1,000,000,000
1986: Anderson's robotic Ping-Pong player wins against
1986: Borland offers Turbo PROLOG for $99.
1986: CMU's HiTech chess machine competes at senior master
1986: Dallas Police use robot to break into an apartment.
1986: First OOPSLA conference on object-oriented
programming, at which CLOS is first publicized outside
the Lisp/AI community.
1986: IBM enters AI fray at AAAI, with a LISP, a PROLOG, and
an ES shell.
1986: Max Headroom
1986: McClelland & Rumelhart's "Parallel Distributed
Processing" (Neural Nets)
1986: Neural net startup companies appear.
1986: OCR now $100 million industry.
1986: PICON ES group leaves LMI and starts Gensym.
1986: Paperback Software offers VP Expert for $99.
1986: Teknowledge goes public, amid wild optimism.
1986: Thinking Machines introduces Connection Machine.
1987: Symbolics pioneers the OODB market with Statice, a
1987: Lisp Pointers commences publication.
1987: 1,900 computers are working Expert systems.
1987: AI revenue $1.4 billion, excluding robotics.
1987: NLP revenue approximately $80 million.
1987: Robotic-vision revenue $300 million.
1987: DEC's "XCON" configures computers doing work of 300
people using 10,000 rules.
1987: Japan's AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identifacation
1987: LMI files for bankruptcy, other bankruptcies and
1987: "Ai Winter"; Lisp-machine market saturated.
1988: Common Lisp development environments on general-
purpose platforms begin to rival those available on
Lisp Machines (e.g., native CLOS, pre-emptive
multitasking, full suites of integrated tools, etc.)
1988: 386 chip brings PC speeds into competition with LISP
1988: Expert systems revenue over $400 million.
1988: Hillis's "Connection Machine", capable of 65,536
1988: Minsky and Papert publish revised edition of
1988: Object-oriented languages are "in".
1988: TI announces MicroExplorer (Macintosh with a LISP
1988: Teknowledge merges with American Cimflex.
1989: Coral sold to Apple, re-marketed as Macintosh Allegro
1989: Palladian ceases production.
1990: Steele publishes second edition of "Common Lisp the
1990: AICorp goes public.
1990: Symbolics Lisp Users Group (SLUG) votes to expand its
charter into an Association of Lisp Users, and to
expand the scope of its annual conference
1991: KnowlegeWare cancels offer to buy IntelliCorp.
1992: Apple Computer introduces Dylan, a language in the
Lisp family as its vision for the future of
1992: X3J13 creates a draft proposed American National
Standard for Common Lisp.
1993: Kurweil AI goes public.
1993: Symbolics files for bankruptcy.
1994: Franz Inc. announces the AllegroStore OODB.
1994: Harlequin's real-time CLOS is used in an announced
AT&T switching system.
1994: Thinking Machines files for bankruptcy.
1994: (Projected) ANSI Common Lisp becomes the first ANSI-
Copyright © 1997 Atool Varma and