Biomorph Challenge #5
Marine Biology: Species Divergence, and Water pH
The Biomorphs have a new idea:
"We are going to take so much CO2 out of your ocean that we reverse acidification. The pH will only rise to pH 8.5. That's 10-8.5 moles/liter of H+ ions, a tiny amount. Your ocean will work much better."
What do you say?
Facts about Oceans
see Ocean Facts
The oceans cover 71% of the Earth's surface and contain 97% of the Earth's water.
Less than 1% of Earth's water is fresh water, and 2-3% is contained in glaciers and ice caps.
Ninety percent of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans. Two or three could erupt at any moment.
At the deepest point in the ocean the pressure is more than 8 tons per square inch, or the equivalent of one person trying to support 50 jumbo jets.
At 39 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature of almost all of the deep ocean is only a few degrees above freezing.
If mined, all the gold suspended in the world's seawater would give each person on Earth 9 pounds.
If the ocean's total salt content were dried, it would cover the continents to a depth of 5 feet.
El Niño, a periodic shift of warm waters from the western to eastern Pacific Ocean, has dramatic effects on climate worldwide. In 1982-1983, the most severe El Niño of the century created droughts, crop failures, fires, torrential rains, floods, landslides--total damages were estimated at more than $8 billion.
The pH of the ocean was pH 8.2, before the industrial age. Now it is pH 8.1. By the year 2300, it is predicted to be pH 7.4.
Written assignment -- turn in to professor
Biomorph Challenge #5
1. Align the following two sequences and calculate the % divergence and the % relatedness of the two sequences.
2. Align the following sequences and calculate the % divergence of A/B and B/C
4. The pH of Shora’s water is 8.07. Calculate
the concentrations of H+ and OH- in the water.
5. CO2 dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid, H2CO3.
Write the chemical equation for this reaction and for the reaction of
carbonic acid with water.
6. The acid dissociation constant, Ka, for carbonic acid
is 4.3 x 10-7. Calculate the % ionization of solutions with
the following concentration (moles/liter) of carbonic acid: 1.0 M, 0.10M,
0.010M and 0.0010 M. Calculate the pH
at each concentration. Comment on the trend you see
in your results. What does it imply for the result of increasing carbon
dioxide in Earth's global atmosphere? How will this affect the oceans?
7. Explain how the Shora ocean resembles oceans on Earth, and how it
is different, in terms of a habitat for organisms, and in terms of ocean
interactions with geography.
8. Cite aspects of Shora ecology that demonstrate interactions between populations of different species . Cite aspects that demonstrate seasonal change in ecosystems.