The Kidneys and the Bladder

The kidneys are located at each side of the vertebral column, below the thorax. The kidneys are the organs in charge of purifying the blood. They extract the blood wastes such as uric acid, and they store vital substances like potassium and sodium.

allKidney Infection

Bacteria can cause inflammation of a kidney. Diseases such as tuberculosis and diabetes can cause infection. A kidney infection diminishes the urine. Females, especially, need to take extra care of urogenital hygiene because kidney infections are more common in them.


Streptococcus, bacteria that are not normally found in the kidneys, can cause inflammation. Nephritis commonly attacks children and adolescents. Due to the gravity of this infection, a large dosis of antibiotics is necessary.


Uraemia ocuurs when the kidneys do not completly eliminate the blood wastes, such as urea. This kidney failure causes secondary complications like hypertension, cardiac insufficiency, and gastrointestinal haemorrhages. In many cases, an artificial kidney is necessary until the kidneys recover their normal function. In some cases, a kidney transplant is imperative.

allKidney Stones

Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid formations in the kidneys. The size of the solid varies, making its elimination very painful when it is big. If the renal calculus cannot be evacuated through the kidneys, the ureter, the bladder and the urethra, a surgery is necessary.

The Bladder


Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. There are two kinds of cystitis: descending (going from the kidneys to the bladder) and ascendent (going from the urethra to the bladder). Cystitis frequently affects pregnant women.

allBladder Calculus

This condition occurs when kidney stones stay in the bladder. In most cases, the stones pass through the bladder naturally. In other cases, it is necessary to introduce a catheter, a urine bag, in the bladder to extract the renal calculus.