The Respiratory System


The respiratory system includes the various organs located in the thoracic cavity, such as the lungs and the bronchial tubes. At present, the respiratory diseases are increasing due to high concentrations of air pollution.


Inflammation of the lung alveoli caused by viruses, bacteria such as Pneumococcus, or mycoplasma. Persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) contract pneumonia caused by Crytococcus, a fungus, or Pneumocystis. It is important to determine the kind of pneumonia - lobar pneumonia (one or more lobules are infected) or bronchiopneumonia (both lungs are infected) because most antibiotics do not eliminate the bacteria. If a pneumonia is not treated immediately, it can develop into more serious disease.


A viral or bacterial infection in the bronchial tubes. Cough, headaches, influenza and high fever are the most common symptoms. In most cases, doctors prescribe antitussive with codeine to eliminate a bronchitis.


Asthma, a term that means "difficult breathing" in Greek, is caused by bronchial tubes and bronchiolar spasms and the swell of the mucous membrane. There are two types of asthma: extrinsic asthma (caused by an allergen) and intrinsic asthma (caused by a respiratory infection). People who suffer from asthma use an isoproteronol spray to minimize suffocation.


A specific infectious disease due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae and its highly potent toxin; it is marked by inflammation, with formation of a fibrinous exudate, of the mucous membrane of the throat, the nose, and sometimes the tracheobronchial branches. The toxin produces degeneration of peripheral nerves, heart muscle, and other tissues. If the infection is serious, a tracheotomy (the operation of opening into the trachea) is necessary.


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by the tuberculous bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In most cases, this disease attacks the lungs. Cough, lost of weight, tiredness, and blood sputum are the symptoms. A BGC shot minimizes the risk of contracting tuberculosis. In the cities, drug-resistant TB is increasingly common, especially among the homeless population.


Inflammation of the pleura, a membrane that covers the lungs. The two membranes of the pleura rub each other when are swelled due to a lung disease such as tuberculosis or pneumonia. It is advisable to rest to soothe the pain.


A pulmonary emphysema is a condition of a lung characterized by an abnormal increase in the size of air spaces. Tobacco and advanced age are the main causes of emphysema. To breathe, the doctors recommend a "bronchilator" spray.