Antibiotic - A natural substance produced by microbes that inhibits or kills other microbes. Only a few useful and natural sources of antibiotics have been identified from bacteria and fungi.

Azithromycin - An antibiotic approved for the treatment of chlamydia and bacterial infections of the skin and respiratory tract. It may also have activity against MAC, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis.

Ceftriaxone - Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to usually inaccessible infections, including those involving the meninges, eyes, inner ears, and urinary tract.

Cephalosporin - A large class of antibiotics similar both chemically and in their mode of action to penicillin's.

Ciprofloxacin - An oral antibiotic approved for the treatment of many common bacterial infections. Sometimes administered to treat MAC in combination with other drugs. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal upset, seizures and rash.

Endogenous - Developing or originating within the organisms or arising from causes within the organism.

Enoxacin - An orally administered broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Its clinical efficacy has been confirmed in a variety of systemic infections and particularly in urinary tract infections. The drug is well tolerated by adults, but should not be used in children and pregnant women.

Fastidious - Having to do with microorganisms which have unusual and/or complex nutritional needs and must be grown on enriched media.

Fluoroquinolone - A new class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - A species of gram-negative, aerobic, coffee-bean shaped diplococci bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of gonorrhhea.

Norfloxacin - Quinoline-derived synthetic antibacterial agent with a very broad spectrum of action. Oral administration yields highly bactericidal plasma, tissue, and urine levels. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA-gyrase and is used in gastrointestinal, eye, and urinary infections.

Ofloxacin - An orally administered broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial drug active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Clinical efficacy has been confirmed in a variety of systemic infections as well as in acute and chronic urinary tract infections.

Penicillinase - Penicillin amino á lactamhydrolase: an enzyme produced by certain bacteria which converts penicillin to an inactive product and thus increases resistance to the antibiotic. A purified preparation from cultures of a strain of Bacillus cereus is used in treatment of reactions to penicillin.

Penicillin - Probably the best known of the antibiotics, derived from the mould Penicillium notatum. It blocks the cross linking reaction in peptidoglycan synthesis and therefore destroys the bacterial cell wall making the bacterium very susceptible to damage.

Pharmacokinetic - The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation and excretion.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. Aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.

Spectinomycin - Acts on ribosome and inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria.

Tetracycline - Broad spectrum antibiotic that blocks binding of aminoacyl tRNA to the ribosomes of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (and those of organelles). Produced by Streptomyces aureofasciens.